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Da tauraron dan adam: Wadanda Samaniya Orbital duniyoyin


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Ba yawa hagu wanda ya iya vouch for 1945 kasancewa wani m shekara - shi gan karshen mafi m duniya rikici duniya bai taba sani. mafi tsawo-guje shugaban kasar Amurka abada Franklin Delano Roosevelt (mu 32nd shugaba) shige cikin abada, kuma aka yi nasara da mataimakin shugaban kasar Harry S. Truman. Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da aka samarwa da kuma kafa Oktoba na wannan shekara da kuma, a karshe, Arthur C. Clarke, Ya lura da kirkiro, likita, karkashin ruwa mai bincike, da kuma kimiyya-fiction marubucin, daidai annabta da isowa da babban amfani da mutumin da aka yi da tauraron dan adam.

Mr. Clarke ya tafi a kan zama daya daga saman uku Science-Fiction marubuta ya zamanin da kuma nasarar annabta zuwan wayar salula da kuma GPS a 1956. Ya aka knighted domin yakin da kimiyya aikata na aikin AD 2000, kuma ta shige a 2008. Ya sanya tauraron dan adam Hasashen a Birtaniya-mallakar mujallar kimiyyar Wireless Duniya kamar yadda wata wasika zuwa ga edita. Za ka iya yi a look at shi tare da wannan link: lakdiva.org/clarke/1945ww/1945ww_feb_058.html.

fig04Clarke zahiri ya yi 2 haruffa cewa shekara: daya cewa ya aiko zuwa ga mujallar da kuma wani na biyu fiye da cikakken harafi cewa ga wasu iyaka wurare dabam dabam. Asali, da tauraron dan adam mas'ala ta haifa fiye da kama wani sarari tashar. Yana da aka kamata su da wani jirgin ma'aikatan da kuma zai kuma zama a matsayin MOTA KE SHAN MAI tasha domin roka kazalika ta sadarwa aikace-aikace. Ya annabta da zuwan da tauraron dan adam a game da 50 shekaru, amma shi ya faru da yawa fiye da; Duk da haka, akwai wani arziki domin ta yin amfani da taimako kumbon sama jannati kamar yadda ya nuna. A ra'ayi na geo-tsit da tauraron dan adam (ko orbs cewa zauna a wuri guda da kuma bi Duniya ta juyawa) ya ba asali zuwa Clarke. ya yi yana sassaka a kan aikin na Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.

A Rasha Tauraron Dan Adam Sputnik samu sarari suKe a makara 1957. Just 4 watanni baya, a farkon 1958, Amurka ma yana da tauraron dan adam (Cikin Explorer I) a cikin falaki. A 1959, da Amurka Navy kaddamar da farko weather tauraron dan adam: Da Vanguard 2, wanda bai yi aiki ba daga quite kazalika tsammani amma aka bi kadan a kan mai shekara daga baya a 1960 da TIROS 1, wanda yake da wannan manufa a matsayin da wanda ya riga. da cewa wannan shekarar, na farko sadarwa tauraron dan adam, Da Echo, aka kaddamar. A Echo wani m tauraron dan adam; shi ne kawai da wani abu to billa sakonni kashe na. 1962 gan da ƙaddamar da farko biyu aiki sadarwa da tauraron dan adam: da Relay da Telstar. A 1964, na farko geo-tsit tauraron dan adam, Da Syncom 3, aka kaddamar. A cikin 'yan shekarun nan, da yawan da tauraron dan adam a sararin samaniya ya hovered a kusa da 1000 ko haka. Amma kawai a sosai 'yan soja da tauraron dan adam suna da izini ga matuƙa ta kusa-up hotuna na duniya.

The most wucin gadi tauraron dan adam (Da cewa mun san na (alama ban mamaki music)) ne International Space Station. Ba ciki har da na yanzu 'amfanin gona' na tauraron dan adamsat3 kaddamar kwanan nan, da yawan da tauraron dan adam cewa an aika up ne a kan sittin da ɗari biyar. A da tauraron dan adam na yau cika da dama iri da kuma ayyuka, kamar: Intelligence / bincike (Soja / gwamnatin), Communication, da kuma Duniya Lura (Commercial, kamar ga yanayin Hasashen kuma taswirar yin), amma ga sarari kallo, akwai da da ake kira Killer tauraron-dan adam (soja), wanda ake amfani da tsaro ta hanyar lalata maƙiyi da makamai masu linzami da kuma harin da ya hallaka sabani sarari-haifa kayan aiki (watau wasu tauraron dan adam). Ya zuwa yanzu, kawai Amurka, China da kuma Rasha sun iya su hallaka hari a sarari. Kewayawa da tauraron dan adam ana amfani da GPS. Biosatellites ake yi don gudanar da rayuwa abu a cikin sarari (kullum ba-adam) domin gudanar da bincike.

Da tauraron dan adam da dama falakinsu amfani da kyau, wanda ake zaba bisa laákari da dalili (ko da masĩfa, kuma orbital lalata). Falakinsu da yawa aka gyara. wadannan su ne: tsawo, centric, Eccentricity, karkata, na karya, Special, kuma synchronous. Tsawo ne da tauraron dan adam nesa daga surface ana orbited. Duniya falakinsu da 4 Heights, jere daga low (har zuwa 1240 mil), ta matsakaici (har zuwa 22,236), da kuma Geosynchronous (22,236 mil up daidai), da kuma dukan hanya har zuwa High Duniya kewayewa (bayan 22,236 mil amma har yanzu a duniya ta gravitational filin). Man-sanya tauraron dan adam a high duniya madawwama biyu sun yawanci outlasted amfaninsu, kuma an sanya a wannan tsawo kiyaye su daga hanya daga wasu tauraron dan adam. irin wannan kewayewa ne sau da yawa ake kira Zubar ko takarce ko hurumi madawwama biyu (ta hanyar tunani, da watã ne yawanci 238,900 mil sama da ƙasa). lokacin da wani tauraron dan adam ne a geosynchronous madawwama biyu, ta orbital gudun ne a kusa da 9800 ƙafa ta biyu; a wannan tsawo, yana daukan cikin abu 1 sidereal rana zuwa kewayewa duniya tamu (wani talakawan sidereal rana ne kawai a karkashin 4 minti kasa da 24 hours) wanda yayi dace da Duniya ta rotational gudun.

03_Clarke_BeltA centric falakinsu mu da tauraron dan adam amfani, ya zuwa yanzu, su ne: Geocentric (a kusa da duniya), Heliocentric (a kusa da Sun), da kuma Areocentric (a kusa Mars). Eccentricity ne da gaske ko da tauraron dan adam'S kewayewa ne madauwari ko elliptical. Akwai 4 misali elliptical duniya falakinsu: geosynchronous canja wurin madawwama biyu, geostationary canja wurin madawwama biyu, molniya madawwama biyu, kuma tundra falaki. A tundra madawwama biyu yana karkata daga 63. 4 ° kuma falakinsu da duniya a wani sidereal rana. da gaske, ya tsaya a daya ajali area (amma ba a matsayin daidai da matsayin Geostationary madawwama biyu) a kan duniya, tare da tsawo sãɓãwar launukansa daidai fasalin da ta ellipse. A karkata daga kewayewa ne tauraron dan adam'S sãɓã wa jũna daga tsarkakakkiyar Equatorial kewayewa - haka, a iyakacin duniya kewayewa ne sosai kusan 90 °. Na karya falakinsu rufe da dama rikitarwa orbital alamu; daya daga cikin sauki misalai na abin da ke retrograde madawwama biyu, wanda kawai yana nufin shi dai da shugabanci da cikin wani sarari suKe jiki ana orbited rotates. retrograde kewayewa ne da wuya amfani domin yana daukan more man fetur kafa zaunanniya kwari falaki. Special falakinsu ne Sun-synchronous madawwama biyu, kuma Moon madawwama biyu, Moon kewayewa ne kyakkyawa da yawa abin da shi sauti kamar. Sun-synchronous kewayewa ne daban-daban biri gabã ɗaya. a cikin wannan nau'i na sarari suKe, da tauraron dan adam wuce a kan wannan wurare a wannan rana lokacin kowace rana. idan so, madawwama biyu za a iya kafa irin wannan cewa ko da yaushe yakan faru a cikin hasken rana, wanda shi ne sosai moriya na bayyana imagining, da kuma wani inuwa shi ci karo da su a cikin kusan guda wuri kowace rana.

Kamar yadda ya bayyana a baya, da tauraron dan adam a cikin wani sarari suKe synchronous sa daya da juyin juya halin a kusa da wani sarari suKe jiki su kewayewa a cikin shugabanci da cewa jiki rotates a cikinsat1 lokaci ɗaya yana daukan wannan jikin don juyawa sau ɗaya; dukkanin nau'ukan iri-iri iri-iri iri daban-daban sune bambanci ko tsaftace wannan. Lokacin da tauraron dan adam ko wani sarari suKe jiki falakinsu fi girma wani sarari suKe jiki tare da wani karkata wanin 0 ° kuma aka kyan gani, daga wani ajali wuri (kullum zaci su zama surface na duniya), da juna na motsi na cewa tauraron dan adam, Idan kyan gani, a yau da kullum jinkiri bayyana gano wasu bambancin da wani warped adadi 8 juna a cikin sama. wannan tsarin da ake kira wani analemma. Idan kewayewa da juyawa ne m da synchronous, ainihin siffa wannan m adadi 8 juna ba zai canza. A iri-iri dalilai sanin juna ta daidai permutation irin wannan 'mutated' adadi takwas juna. A tauraron dan adam tare da tsari mai ban sha'awa a cikin 0 ° karkatarwa an ce ana da Geostationary (aka "Clarke" - bayan marubucin) orbit. Ya bayyana yana zama a daidai wannan wurin da yake dangantaka da ƙasa a kowane lokaci a wani tsawo na 22,236 mil sama da duniya. Yana ya bayyana tsit. shi ne, a gaskiya, whizzing ta sama a 9800 ƙafa ta biyu kula da wuri dangi zuwa ga ƙasa.

Bayan na farko da kalaman na tauraron dan adam, da muka fara gina karin hadaddun da tsada da tauraron dan adam, ya kara da a ƙara karrarawa da whistles, mafi na'urori masu auna sigina, fancier sadarwa iri-iri da dai sauransu. Domin dogon lokaci, mallakan wani tauraron dan adam ne kawai zai yiwu ga wani gwamnatoci da kuma wani sosai kananan yawan Santa hukumomi, saboda da kudi da kuma fasaha gwaninta ake bukata don kula da tauraron dan adam a falaki. Wannan abin kwaikwaya ya dauka a m bi da bi marigayi; wani sabon Trend ya fito. A babban abu a tauraron dan adam a yanzu shi ne karami da kuma rahusa. Saboda haka abin da ake kira Nano-da tauraron dan adam sun buga cikin sama. da "1- roka / 1-tauraron dan adam"Yayi ya daina haramta. A babban zato da tauraron dan adam har yanzu suna zama dole ba - kar a samu ni ba daidai ba; amma wannan gaba kalaman na tauraron dan adam tech yayi sabon yiwuwa. Yanzu, guda jefa iya ƙunsar sama na talatin da tauraron dan adam. Saboda fasaha ci gaba, da yawa daga cikin wadannan kananan tauraron dan adam za su iya samun wannan damar iya yin komai da Sputnik da, fãce ga zama karami, mai rahusa da kuma sarrafa kwamfuta da yawa, da yawa sauri. Saboda kudi da kuma orbital bukatu, kawai wasu zaži spots a kan Duniya da za a iya rinjayi / lura da wani tauraron dan adam akai-akai. Wannan ne yanzu fara canza. zuwan kankanin kuma cheap da tauraron dan adam za su bude wani dizzying tsararru na sabon zabin a sadarwa da watsa shirye-shirye da kuma gudanar da bincike.


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Ryan Salazar

Edita-A-Cif, Publisher at Watsa Beat Magazine, LLC.
Ryan fara aiki a watsa shirye-shirye da kuma post samar masana'antu a matasa shekaru goma sha biyu! Ya fitar talabijin shirye-shirye, gina manyan post samar da wurin, rubuta ga wasu daga cikin masana'antu jagorancin wallafe, kuma ya yi wani audio m for game da shekara goma. Ryan baya ya rubuta wa Watsa Engineering Magazine, Creative saniya da ayyukan da aka featured in da dama wallafe.
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